What is a Meniscus Tear?
A meniscus tear occurs when there is a partial or full tear in one of the two menisci that are located within the knee joint. A meniscus is a C-shaped disc composed of cartilage in the knee that balances body weight across the knee so that it is evenly distributed among the bones in your legs. One meniscus is located along the inner edge of the knee (medial meniscus) and the other is located along the outer edge (lateral meniscus). Meniscus tears are a very common knee injury.
What is an ACL/PCL Tear?
ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) and PCL (posterior cruciate ligament) tears are common knee injuries, especially for athletes. The ACL and PCL are two of four ligaments that stabilize the knee joint, allowing the knee to move forward and backward without moving side to side. The ACL is located in the center of the knee just in front of the PCL, keeping the shinbone (tibia) from moving too far forward, while the PCL keeps it from moving too far backward. The ligaments cross over each other, and along with the MCL and LCL, work to stabilize the knee joint. Injuries to these ligaments are more often sprains than tears, although partial or full tears can occur to either ligament.
What is a MCL/LCL Sprain/Tear?
The medial collateral ligament (MCL) and lateral collateral ligament (LCL) are two of four ligaments in the knee that provide stability to the knee joint, along with the ACL and PCL. The MCL is located on the inner side of the knee and the LCL is located on the outer side and these two ligaments work to control the side-to-side stability of the knee joint. When the MCL or LCL is injured, it can result in a sprain, partial tear or full tear, depending on the severity.
Patellofemoral pain syndrome, also called “runner’s knee”, is one of the more common sports related injuries affecting the knee, and refers to a condition that causes pain behind and around the kneecap. The patella, or kneecap, fits into grooves in the femur (the thigh bone) and is also attached to the tibia (shin bone) and the quadriceps muscles in the thigh. As the patella moves within the grooves of the femur (it can move in many directions), irritation may develop, causing pain.
Patellar tendonitis, also called “jumper’s knee”, is an inflammation of the patellar tendon, a cord-like structure that connects the patella (kneecap) to the tibia (shinbone). Tendonitis causes pain due to inflammation, swelling, and minor tears in the tendon. In some cases, a loss of mobility of the joint will occur due to excessive inflammation.
Knee bursitis is an inflammation of the bursa, a fluid filled sac that is situated between the bones and tendons within the knee joint. When the bursa becomes inflamed, it causes pain in the knee and can lead to limited mobility of the joint. There are eleven bursae located in each knee, but the condition is most likely to occur over the kneecap or on the inner side of the knee, below the knee joint.
Tendonitis is an inflammation or irritation of a tendon, a cord-like structure that connects muscles to bones. There are hundreds of tendons located throughout the body. Tendonitis can occur in any part of the body in which tendons are located, but most often occurs in certain locations such as the elbow, shoulder (rotator cuff), wrist, knee, hip and ankle (Achilles tendon). Tendonitis typically causes pain due to inflammation and swelling. In some cases, a loss of mobility of the joint will occur due to excessive inflammation.
Iliotibial band syndrome (or ITB syndrome or ITBS) is a common running related injury in which the iliotibial band (a band of tissue that runs along the outside of the thigh and stabilizes the knee) becomes inflamed due to friction, causing pain along the outside of the knee and the lower thigh.
Chondromalacia patella refers to the degeneration of cartilage under the patella (kneecap), which results in pain in the front of the knee. The degeneration causes the cartilage to soften and is the most common cause of chronic knee pain.
What is Arthritis?
There are many type of arthritis, a condition that primarily causes inflammation, pain and limited mobility in the joints. Symptoms of arthritis are caused by a breakdown of cartilage surrounding the joint, which normally acts like a shock absorber and prevents bones from rubbing together. Some types of arthritis are a result of regular or excessive wear and tear on the joints and cartilage surrounding the joints, while others are a result of metabolic or immune system abnormalities, infections or injury. Each type of arthritis has slightly different symptoms, causes and treatments.